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                      先秦 兩漢 魏晉 南北朝 隋代 唐代 五代 宋代 元代 明代 清代 近代 現代 手機版

                      牡丹亭

                      作者:湯顯祖

                      《牡丹亭》是明朝劇作家湯顯祖的代表作之一,共55出,描寫杜麗娘和柳夢梅的愛情故事。與其《紫釵記》《南柯記》《邯鄲記》并稱為“臨川四夢”。此劇原名《還魂記》,創作于1598年。
                      舞臺上常演的有《鬧學》、《游園》、《驚夢》、《尋夢》、《寫真》、《離魂》、《拾畫叫畫》、《冥判》、《幽媾》、《冥誓》、《還魂》等幾折。
                      《牡丹亭》,全名《牡丹亭還魂記》,即《還魂記》,也稱《還魂夢》或《牡丹亭夢》,傳奇劇本,二卷,五十五出,據明人小說《杜麗娘慕色還魂》而成,明代南曲的代表,湯顯祖著。
                      湯顯祖萬歷二十六年被罷免還家,絕意仕途,筆耕以終老。其一生四部傳奇雜劇比較著名,《牡丹亭》、《南柯記》、《紫釵記》、《邯鄲記》,又稱“臨川四夢”,其中,以《牡丹亭》最為著名,他本人也十分得意,曾說:“一生四夢,得意處惟在牡丹。”明朝人沈德符稱“湯義仍《牡丹亭夢》一出,家傳戶誦,幾令《西廂》減價。”
                      《牡丹亭》是湯顯祖的代表作,也是我國戲曲史上浪漫主義的杰作。作品通過杜麗娘和柳夢梅生死離合的愛情故事,洋溢著追求個人幸福、呼喚個性解放、反對封建制度的浪漫主義理想,感人至深。杜麗娘是我國古典文學里繼崔鶯鶯之后出現的最動人的婦女形象之一,通過杜麗娘與柳夢梅的愛情婚姻,喊出了要求個性解放、愛情自由、婚姻自主的呼聲,并且暴露了封建禮教對人們幸福生活和美好理想的摧殘。《牡丹亭》以文詞典麗著稱,賓白饒有機趣,曲詞兼用北曲潑辣動蕩及南詞宛轉精麗的長處。明呂天成稱之為“驚心動魄,且巧妙迭出,無境不新,真堪千古矣!”
                      湯顯祖在該劇《題詞》中有言:“如杜麗娘者,乃可謂之有情人耳。情不知所起,一往而深。生者可以死,死可以生。生而不可與死,死而不可復生者,皆非情之至也。”閱讀《牡丹亭》,享受文字的饗宴,穿越時空的生死之戀,不必借助現代科技,纏綿秾麗,至情弘貫蒼茫人世,迤邐而來。
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                      湯顯祖
                        湯顯祖(1550—1616),中國明代戲曲家、文學家。字義仍,號海若、若士、清遠道人。漢族,江西臨川人。公元1583年(萬歷十一年)中進士,任太常寺博士、禮部主事,因彈劾申時行,降
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